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Antioxidants: Definition, Effects And Dangers

Cancer prevention agents are often introduced as the panacea against cell maturation. They would likewise have excellencies to safeguard us from age-related illnesses. Be that as it may, who are cell reinforcements, and would they say they are protected?

Antioxidants Fight Oxidative Stress

By definition, cell reinforcements are atoms that forestall or diminish oxidation. They do this by killing or decreasing the harm by responsive oxygen species (ROS), which, alternately, increment cell oxidation.

Cellular Respiration Produces Free Radicals

In cells, and all the more definitively at the degree of mitochondria, breath creates ROS, free revolutionaries, like the superoxide particle O 2 -. Free extremists emerge from the parting of particles. From a substance perspective, they have a solitary electron and, subsequently, their shakiness. Due to this unpaired electron, the free extreme looks to surrender or acquire an electron by responding with atoms. 

Assuming it succeeds, it sends its receptive properties to another atom, prompting chain responses. Breathing is one of many interactions answerable for the presence of free revolutionaries. Maturing, stress, certain synthetic compounds (liquor, cigarettes, air contamination, and so on), irritation, and sun radiation advance oxidative pressure.

Free Radicals Cause Damage To Cells

Free radicals damage DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, hence their involvement in many diseases, such as cancers. Here are some possible toxic effects:

  1. Reactive oxygen species cause breaks in DNA, which can cause mutations;
  2. The oxidation of amino acids modifies the three-dimensional structure of proteins, leading to their denaturation and inactivation;
  3. Damage to membrane lipids impairs the integrity of cell membranes…

Our body has natural antioxidant defenses, including antioxidant enzymes. When natural antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by reactive oxygen species, we speak of oxidative stress. This may be due to faulty antioxidant systems or very high production of free radicals.

Oxidative Stress Is Involved In Many Diseases

As we saw above, free radicals cause mutations in DNA. However, such genetic modifications can initiate a process of carcinogenesis. But other pathologies are also affected by oxidative stress:

  1. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative stress harms the vascular endothelium’s cells. It is associated with the process of atherosclerosis;
  2. Neurodegenerative diseases: the brain consumes a lot of oxygen, hence the importance of oxidative stress in this organ. The brain cells of Alzheimer’s patients are particularly exposed to oxidative stress. In brain cells, hydrogen peroxide promotes the formation of the inflammasome, involved in inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease;
  3. Eye diseases: As the retina is particularly exposed to the sun’s rays, it is subject to significant oxidative stress, which is correlated with age-related macular degeneration. Likewise, oxidative stress promotes cataracts.

Endogenous Antioxidants Reduce Oxidative Stress In The Body

Antioxidants prevent the formation of free radicals or deactivate them. The three main antioxidant enzymes in the body are:

  1. Catalase is an enzyme in the peroxisomes of the liver kidneys, ney, and red blood cells. It allows the transformation of oxygen peroxide into oxygen and water;
  2. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), which catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide ions (O 2 – ). Superoxide dismutases are metal enzymes that may contain zinc, copper, manganese, or iron;
  3. Glutathione peroxidase is a selenium enzyme – a selenoprotein – that catalyzes the reduction of hydroperoxides through glutathione oxidation (see figure below). This enzyme is found in extracellular media.

Glutathione is a tripeptide shaped by glutamic corrosive, cysteine, and glycine. In the body, it is found in reduced or oxidized form. The excess of the reduced form promotes antioxidant activity. If certain antioxidants are endogenous, others are provided by food or supplements.

Food Provides Exogenous Antioxidants

Several tests can measure the antioxidant capacity of a sample. For example, the ORAC index ( Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity ) is often used to evaluate foods: the higher the ORAC index, the higher the antioxidant capacities of the food. Antioxidants provided by food are found in particular in:

  1. fruits: citrus fruits, red fruits, apples …
  2. vegetables: onion, cabbage, spinach …
  3. drinks: tea, coffee, etc.
  4. Spices: turmeric, ginger, cinnamon …

Vitamins A, C, And E Are Potent Antioxidants

Specific vitamins present in fruits and vegetables increase the antioxidant capacity of foods. These are, for the most part, nutrients A, C, and E. Vitamin E is lipophilic; it can enter cell membranes and fight against lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, vitamin C, which is hydrophilic, can have an intracellular action.

It also serves to regenerate vitamin E in the membrane. Vitamin A, lipophilic, includes two main categories of molecules: retinoids (such as retinol), present in animal products, and pro-vitamins A (such as beta-carotene), present in orange fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C is present in blackcurrants, citrus fruits, kiwis, cabbage, peppers, lychees, papayas, strawberries, etc.

Some Trace Elements Are Antioxidants

Food also provides antioxidant trace elements: selenium, zinc, and copper. Selenium is involved in the composition of selenoproteins, some of which – glutathione peroxidases – have an antioxidant action. Both copper and zinc are cofactors of superoxide dismutase. However, a high concentration of copper has the opposite effect and is a sign of oxidative stress. Zinc protects the thiol groups of proteins and limits the formation of reactive oxygen species.

Plants Also Provide Antioxidant Polyphenols

Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced by plants. Chemically, they contain several phenol nuclei. A phenol corresponds to an aromatic nucleus associated with an alcohol function (-OH). In the large family of polyphenols are:

  1. simple phenols, such as hydroquinone and phloroglucinol;
  2. hydroxybenzoic acids, derived from benzoic acid, such as gallic acid and vanillic acid;
  3. hydroxycinnamic acids, derived from cinnamic acid, such as caffeic acid;
  4. coumarins;
  5. stilbenoids such as resveratrol;
  6. flavonoids and isoflavonoids, which include anthocyanin pigments;
  7. lignans and lignins;
  8. tannins: catechol, epigallocatechin…
  9. terpenoids…

Antioxidants Have Beneficial Effects

Antioxidants have anti-aging effects and could be helpful against age-related diseases.

Antioxidants Fight Against Cellular Aging

During maturing, free revolutionaries amass. This oxidative pressure is accepted to be answerable for age-related cell harm. Oxidative pressure speculation holds that cell senescence occurs because of harm brought about by oxidative pressure. Cancer prevention agents have an enemy of ag, considering that they decrease the impacts of cell maturing. 

Therefore, we discovered a portion of these particles in skin beauty care products: nutrients C, E, resveratrol, and so forth. Cell reinforcements can decrease the impact of UV radiation on the skin. Yet, in dermatology, as in different areas of well-being, the activity of cell reinforcements is portion subordinate, and physiological doses are ideal.

Antioxidants Prevent Disease

Many examinations show that an eating regimen rich in cell reinforcements diminishes the gamble of atherosclerosis. In any case, supplementation tests, such as vitamin E, battle to significantly impact forestalling cardiovascular illnesses. In like manner, individuals who eat more leafy foods have a lower hazard of developing Alzheimer’s disease. In this manner, the Mediterranean eating routine, wealthy in cell reinforcements, is known to be successful in forestalling cardiovascular illnesses and keeping up with great mental capacities. 

An eating regimen wealthy in cell reinforcements is likewise defensive against disease. Flavonoids furnished by the eating routine are related to a decrease in the gamble of creating colorectal, prostate, bosom, or stomach disease. However, clinical preliminaries that have tried supplements have once in a while delivered stressful results (see underneath). 

A rich and changed diet gives adequate cell reinforcements to sound individuals. Nonetheless, confident individuals, for example, patients after bariatric medical procedures, may have nutrient inadequacies. A reasonable admission of nutrients at physiological dosages can be valuable to ensure they are present.

Antioxidants Are Harmful In Certain Circumstances

Antioxidant supplements (vitamin C, E, etc.) are available over the counter. However, their consumption is safe in some instances.

Antioxidants Can Be Harmful In High Doses

In high dosages, cell reinforcements can be harmful. This is called the cell reinforcement Catch 22. Shallow oxidative pressure, as unnecessarily high, can adversely influence cells. For instance, high doses of L-ascorbic acid could expand the gamble of waterfalls, while the cancer prevention agent nutrient is remembered to decrease this gamble. One concentrate showed that high-portion vitamin E supplementation (over 400 IU daily) increases mortality risk. 

Generally, it is desirable to utilize physiological dosages (near the suggested everyday admission) instead of high portions. Likewise, cancer prevention agents are, in many cases, more successful on the off chance that they come from food because of polyphenols. For instance, a review showed that squeezed orange has a higher cancer prevention agent limit than a beverage with a similar L-ascorbic acid portion.

Increases In Cancer Cases When Taking Antioxidants

A few clinical preliminaries have tried the impact of cell reinforcement supplementation on decreasing disease risk. Be that as it may, some must be halted because of an unfriendly impact. This is the situation, for instance, of the CARET study ( Beta-Carotene and Retinol Viability Preliminary ), which started in 1985 and planned to decide if supplementation with vitamin A and beta-carotene could forestall cellular breakdown in the lungs in smokers. The examination was halted rashly because the supplementation expanded it by 28% instead of diminishing this gamble. The dosages were 25,000 IU of vitamin A (retinol) and 30 mg of beta-carotene daily.

Likewise, in the SELECT review, an expanded gamble of prostate disease was noticed following supplementation with vitamin E (268 mg each day) and selenium (200 µg each day). Vitamin E supplementation expanded the gamble of prostate malignant growth by 17%. Cell reinforcement supplementation may likewise expand instances of skin disease in ladies.

Free Radicals Are Not Always Toxic

The amassing of responsive oxygen species has been related to various pathologies: tumors, diabetes, neurodegenerative illnesses, and so on. Nonetheless, small amounts of responsive oxygen species are fundamental for the appropriate working of the body. In like manner, oxidative pressure is fundamental for sports. During exercise, responsive oxygen species are created. They act as flagging that permits the body to adjust to work out. 

Enhancing cancer prevention agents isn’t alluring for competitors. For instance, supplementation with nutrients C and E has been displayed to block cell transformation to intense exercise. Also, even though the game creates oxidative pressure, it stays gainful for well-being and well-being. This is the guideline of hormesis: It makes sense that a low portion of oxidative pressure can reinforce well-being since it permits the body to be more ready even with more severe harm.

Caution With Antioxidants During Cancer Treatments

We saw that oxidative pressure can partake in the beginning of cancer-causing transformations. Then, when disease develops, free revolutionaries can be hurtful to malignant growth cells since they cause their passing through apoptosis. Radiotherapy, as an anticancer therapy, means to deliver many free revolutionaries to obliterate malignant growth cells. Chemotherapy likewise produces critical oxidative pressure.

For this situation, taking cell reinforcement supplements all the while as an anticancer therapy brings up issues since cancer prevention agents could assist malignant growth cells with getting by notwithstanding oxidative pressure! Along these lines, looking for guidance from your doctor is ideal.

Cell reinforcements can have various compound natures: chemicals, nutrients, minor components, polyphenols, etc. By and large, as a feature of a solid eating routine, it advances excellent general well-being. Supplements utilizing high doses of cancer prevention agents should be utilized warily, with physiological portions staying ideal.

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